Generally, when the supernumerary 45S rDNA cluster occurred on the heterosome, it was always observed on the X chromosome. According to Quesada del Bosque et al. Male sex chromosomes XY are non-homologous, while female sex chromosomes XX are homologous.
Spore-autonomous fluorescent protein expression identifies meiotic chromosome mis-segregation as the principal cause of hybrid sterility in yeast. The migration parameter m ij corresponds to the per-generation fraction of replacements in population i by genetic fragments from population j.
The lower divergence between clusters on the mating-type chromosomes than on autosomes occurred despite higher substitution rates and smaller population effective sizes, and autosome and sex chromosome difference in white and black in Chilliwack most likely result from higher levels of past gene flow on the mating-type chromosomes, as supported by estimates of past gene flow parameters in dadi.
Reprints and Permissions. Sex chromosomes have been found to play a prominent role in reproductive isolation. Evolution 53 5 : — Clustering of contact zones, hybrid zones, and phylogeographic breaks in North America. We are grateful to Mike Perlin and Janis Antonovics for providing anther-smut fungal strains and the Genotoul platform for sequencing.
Biol J Linn Soc —
To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. To compare a relative gene dose of Leptidea orthologs between females and males, we performed quantitative real-time PCR qPCR using gDNAs as templates according to the method described in Nguyen et al.
Tracks represent from the outer to the inner center: 1 contigs, 2 localization of centromeric repeats in black, of the mating-type genes represented by black circles the HD and pheromone receptor PR genesand of regions with contrasted levels of recombination recombining PARs in red, oldest nonrecombining regions NRRs in light blue, and youngest NRRs in yellow3 subtelomeric repeats in red, 4 transposable elements in green, 5 gene coding sequences in gray, and 6 blue and orange links connecting orthologous regions between assemblies.
To identify sex-linked genes in L.
It shows Non-Mendelian inheritance. Material and methods Plant material and chromosome preparation Male and female R. This work was supported by the grant no. The scattered phylogenetic distribution of taxa with these chromosomes suggested that chromosomal sex determination evolved in these organisms independently Ming et al.
Differentiating sex chromosomes of the dioecious Spinacia oleracea L. Impact of this question views around the world.