Consequences of resistance evolution in a Cas9-based sex-conversion suppression gene drive for insect pest management. In both cases the different types of YLE eliminated the population, with no difference whether the target gene was autosomal or X-linked, and the most rapid decline occurring if the edit caused death after density-dependence hereafter denoted a YLE-a construct.
Piaggio AJ, et al. Males only have one X chromosome so if they inherit the affected X, they will have the disorder -- just like poor little Alexei. If the sperm cell contains a Y chromosome, then the resulting zygote will be XY or male. Only girls receive X chromosomes from their fathers.
Pest control by the release of insects carrying a female-killing allele on multiple loci.
Linked genes can be separated by recombination : The process of crossover, or recombination, occurs when two homologous chromosomes align during meiosis and exchange a segment of genetic material. If a genetic trait is recessive, a person needs to inherit two copies of the gene for the trait to be expressed.
If at least one parent has two copies of the dominant gene -- for example, WW -- then none of the offspring will express the recessive trait. Regina Bailey is a board-certified registered nurse, science writer and educator. Similarly, isolating only seed color, we would assume that three-quarters of the F 2 offspring would be yellow and one-quarter would be green.
In humans, male gametes are spermatozoa sperm cells and female gametes are ova or eggs. Figure Autosomal Inheritance.
With simple population genetic and dynamic models we show that Y-linked editors can be substantially more efficient than other self-limiting strategies and, while not as efficient as gene drive approaches, are expected to have less impact on non-target populations with which there is some gene flow.
Second, the YLE might target the X chromosome in a number of other ways. We have considered the most obvious classes of target gene lethals and sterilesbut in some species there may be other possibilities, such as edits that convert females into males.
Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; chap 1. Constructs that combined dominant female lethality and male drive were equally good as the YLEs indeed, indistinguishableand all other approaches were less effective.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a condition that causes muscle degeneration. This idea was previously suggested by Deredec et al. Figure 5. Impact of mosquito gene drive on malaria elimination in a computational model with explicit spatial and temporal dynamics. Most of our calculations have also assumed equal numbers released in each generation, but this may not be optimal.