In some East African cichlids e. Furthermore, expression profiles of F1 hybrid samples were more similar to the expression profiles of the S1 parent than the B6 parent irrespective of cross-direction Fig. We identified three eQTLs that colocalize with these previously mapped regions.
A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats. The zebrafish findings serve as a cautionary tale for interpreting laboratory results without natural context, but also speak to the lability of sex determination and development in fishes.
We show primary sex determination in Raleigh tra and dsx have distinct functions in these insects, reflecting different stages in the changeover from a transcription-based to a splicing-based mode of sexual differentiation.
We conclude with an outlook for future research that might improve our understanding of how and why sex determination evolves so rapidly in many animals and plants. Meiotic drive, where primary sex determination in Raleigh elements bias the proportion of gametes that carry them, can create male-biased sex ratios if they are located on the Y or Z chromosomes as seen in many Drosophila species whereas driving X or W chromosomes create female-biased sex ratios found in D.
Sex determination by the whole genome In many animals, sex determination involves the entire genome. Comp Biochem Physiol — Environmental sex determination: sex is triggered by environmental cues, such as temperature, pH, social interactions, and seasonality e. Vicoso B, Kaiser VB, Bachtrog D Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution.
The occurrence of female advantage, its proximal causes and its variation within and among gynodioecious species.
The strong and faded colours of the arrows indicate operative and non-operative interactions, respectively. Given the current catalog of identified sex determination mechanisms, fish are arguably the taxon with the highest diversity of sex determination mechanisms [ 2 ].
Their functions are described in the Additional file 1. Services Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Download to citation manager Permissions. XX gonad double mutant for Sry gain-of-function and Sox9 loss-of-function results into ovary.
It will be interesting to obtain a more dynamic view of how the gonad transcriptome approaches this decision point and diverges toward the ovary or testis pathway. Genetics : — This previous work shows that, despite the likely involvement of a greater number of players, a core regulatory network seems enough to drive this complex developmental process.
Roberts et al. In the latter, functional Tra protein is absent in males but present in females, where it dimerizes with the RNA-binding protein Tra-2 to regulate the splicing of dsx and fru Hoshijima et al.