Cite Cite Elizabeth M. Many clinical pain conditions show no sex difference in prevalence before puberty, but show increased prevalence in one sex or the other usually women after puberty. Perhaps there is a multiplicative effect produced when combinations of guideline-recommended practices are used.
Open in a separate window. In a population-based cohort of over participants in a back pain survey, women with chronic back pain at baseline were more likely than men to still have chronic back pain 4 years later. The model system that is most appropriate is entirely hypothesis-driven.
Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenon. Moreover, for estradiol, the interval between the last injection and behavioral testing as well as the duration of hormone exposure may dramatically influence the outcome [ 42,]. Brain Sci.
A prime example is studying sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia in Henderson recent report that the antinociception resulting from the i. For example, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis show greater prevalence within women, whereas other conditions such as cluster headache tend to occur more in men.
Alongside pharmacological interventions, there are also examples where psychological manipulations have been employed and responses to experimental pain measured. Vaginal lavage attenuates cocaine-stimulated activity and establishes place preference in rats.
World Health Organization. Data from an Italian community based cohort also using the WOMAC found females had significantly greater hip and knee pain than males. Most studies used the cold pressor as the conditioning stimulus, whereas a variety of test stimuli have been used.
Smart citations by scite. Wilson MA, Biscardi R. These studies generally support the conclusion that sex differences will be more robust with a painful stimulus that produces a deep, tonic sensation of pain. Some research has addressed this issue in the context of experimentally induced pain.